The Indian Ocean island nation of the Republic of Madagascar is famous for its biodiversity. Many of its mammals, half of its birds and most of its plants are unique to the country. Its official languages are Malagasy and French.
Madagascar established a presidential system of government following its independence from France in 1960. It faced periods of unrest during the ensuing decades and a coup in 2009. In 2011 the Southern African Development Community and the Indian Ocean Commission negotiated a Roadmap that led to democratic elections in 2013. Political volatility continued until incumbent President Andry Rajoelina was elected in late 2018.
Madagascar is a member of the Southern African Development Community, the Indian Ocean Rim Association the Indian Ocean Commission. It hosts the Regional Maritime Information Fusion Centre, which is important to regional security.
Its economy depends on agriculture, including fishing and forestry, with a growing mining sector. Some ten Australian mining companies are active in Madagascar. The United Nations recognises Madagascar as a least developed country and 92 per cent of its population of over 27 million (2019) live on less than USD2 per day.
Australia's diplomatic representation to Madagascar is from the High Commission in Port Louis, Mauritius with an Honorary Consul in Antananarivo, Madagascar’s capital. Madagascar is represented in Australia by an Honorary Consul General based in Sydney.
Economic and trade information
- Madagascar country/economy fact sheet [PDF]
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Heads of Government
Embassies and consulates
The Australian High Commission in Mauritius is responsible for Madagascar