Luxembourg country brief
Australia enjoys a constructive and positive bilateral relationship with Luxembourg, primarily focused on multilateral issues including in the United Nations, the World Trade Organization and international disarmament negotiations. The Australian Ambassador to Belgium has non-resident accreditation to Luxembourg.
System of government
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a hereditary constitutional monarchy ruled by the Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral Chamber of Deputies with 60 members elected for five year terms. Some legislative functions are also entrusted to the advisory State Council, with 21 members appointed for life by the Grand Duke, although decisions made by this body can be overruled by the legislature. Executive power is vested in the Grand Duke, but is normally exercised by the Council of Ministers, led by the head of the government (Prime Minister). The Grand Duke appoints ministers, but they are responsible to the legislature.
Although Luxembourg is divided into 12 counties for administrative purposes, it is subdivided differently during general elections and for the purpose of local government. During elections, Luxembourg is subdivided into four electoral districts or constituencies: Centre, East, North and South. In relation to local government, the Grand Duchy is subdivided into three administrative districts: Diekirch, Grevenmacher and Luxembourg. District Commissioners serve as intermediaries between the central Government and the 118 municipalities.
The main political parties are the Christian Social People’s Party (CSV), the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party (LSAP), and the Democratic Party (DP). Other political parties include the Alternative Democratic Reform Party (ADR), the Greens Party and the Left Party. Parliamentary elections are held every five years.
The political situation in Luxembourg has been traditionally stable, with the CSV party having been in government either in its own right or in coalition since 1919, except for the period 1974-1979 and 2013-now. From 1995 to 2013 the Prime Minister was Mr Jean-Claude Juncker of the ruling CSV thereby making him the EU's longest-serving democratically-elected European leader in recent times. Mr Juncker then served as President of the European Commission from 2014-2019.
Following elections in 2013, Mr Xavier Bettel was appointed Prime Minister, leading a coalition government comprising the Democratic Party, Socialist Workers Party and the Greens Party. This coalition was returned to government following the 2018 elections, with Mr Bettel remaining as Prime Minister. Mr Dan Kersch and Mr François Bausch each serve as Deputy Prime Minister. Mr Jean Asselborn is Minister for Foreign Affairs, a position he has held since 2004.
Luxembourg is a strong supporter of multilateral organisations. Luxembourg is one of six founding members of the European Union. Luxembourg is a signatory to the Brussels Treaty providing for collective self defence between its members, a NATO member and a founding member of the Council of Europe. Luxembourg plays host to several European institutions including the Secretariat-General of the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and the European Investment Bank. Luxembourg served alongside Australia as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for the period 2013-14.
Luxembourg has a relatively open and stable economy with one of the highest GDP per capita levels in the world (US$113,337 (2018)).
Germany, France and Belgium, Luxembourg's nearest neighbours, account for over half of its two-way trade. Since 1921, Luxembourg has been in economic union with Belgium – the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU). In 2015 Luxembourg was the first country outside the Asia region to become a founding member of the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank.
Australia has a number of bilateral agreements with Luxembourg, covering issues such as mutual assistance on criminal matters, extradition and visas.
High level visits
Former Deputy Prime Minister Schneider visited Australia in November 2019 for a range of trade and investment-related meetings.
Prime Minister Morrison most recently met Prime Minister Bettel during commemorations held in Portsmouth, UK in June 2019 for the 75th anniversary of the D-Day landings.
Minister for Finance Pierre Gramegna met Minister for Finance Cormann in Canberra in March 2017.
Minister for Foreign Affairs Asselborn met Minister for Finance Cormann and then-Assistant Minister for Immigration and Border Protection Alex Hawke in Canberra in September 2016, for the signature of the Australia-Luxembourg Working Holiday Visa Scheme.
Former Minister for Foreign Affairs, Senator the Hon Bob Carr visited Luxembourg in April 2013 to participate in an Informal Meeting on Syria hosted by Luxembourg and the International Peace Institute.
Bilateral economic and trade relationship
Luxembourg's investment in Australia was valued at A$78.4 billion in 2018. Australian investment in Luxembourg was valued at A$21.1 billion in 2018.