Greece country brief
Located in Southern Europe, Greece shares a border with Albania, the North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north and Turkey to the east. Greece is also bordered by the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It has a population of 10.9 million (2015), approximately 4 million of whom reside in the capital, Athens.
Greece joined the European Union (EU) in 1981. It is a member of the Schengen Area since 2000 and adopted the Euro in 2001. There are 21 Greek Members of the European Parliament. Greece has held the revolving presidency of the Council of the European Union five times between 1983 and 2014.
Australia and Greece have had consular relations since the 1920s and have exchanged resident Ambassadors since 1965. Australia has an Embassy in Athens. Greece has an Embassy in Canberra and Consulates or Honorary Consulates in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia.
In May 2014, Australia and Greece signed a Work and Holiday Visa Arrangement. The arrangement was approved by the Greek Parliament on 9 December 2015.
In 2007, Australia and Greece signed a bilateral social security agreement to provide improved social security protection to people who have lived and/or worked in both Australia and Greece.
High level visits
Positions indicated in the list below were held at the time of the visit.
- May 2014: Greek Minister of Tourism, Ms Olga Kefalogianni
- March 2014: Greek Deputy Foreign Minister, Mr Kyriakos Gerontopoulos
- March 2013: Greek Deputy Foreign Minister, Mr Konstantinos Tsiaras
- May 2007: Prime Minister of Greece, Mr Kostas Karamanlis, and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ms Dora Bakoyannis
- September 2015: Ms Anna Burke, MP and former Speaker of the House of Representatives
- April 2015: Australia's Chief of Navy, Vice-Admiral Tim Barrett AO, CSC, RAN, attended Centenary of ANZAC events in Lemnos and Athens
- November 2014: President of the Senate, Senator The Hon Stephen Parry
- April 2014: Australia's Deputy Chief of Navy, Rear Admiral Michael Van Balen, RAN, attended ANZAC Day events in Lemnos and Athens
- April 2013: Australia's Chief of Navy, Vice-Admiral Ray Griggs AO, CSC, RAN, attended ANZAC Day events in Lemnos and Athens
- May 2012: Governor of New South Wales, Professor The Hon Dame Marie Bashir AD, CVO
- June 2011: Parliamentary Secretary for Disabilities and Carers, Senator The Hon Jan McLucas, visited Greece for the Special Olympic Games
- May 2011: Minister for Veterans' Affairs, The Hon Warren Snowdon MP, to mark the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Crete
- April 2011: A parliamentary delegation led by the President of the Senate, Senator The Hon John Hogg
- February 2011: Minister for Foreign Affairs, The Hon Kevin Rudd MP
- 2008: Governor of Western Australia, The Hon Dr Kenneth Comninos Michael AC
Trade and investment
In 2015-16, Greece was Australia's 66th largest merchandise trading partner. Two-way merchandise trade was approximately $216 million. Australian exports to Greece totaled $15 million and consisted mainly of fruits and nuts, agricultural machinery, specialized machinery and parts, and ships and boats. Goods imported from Greece totaled $201 million, including prepared and preserved vegetables, cheese and curd, medicaments (including veterinary) and aluminium. Two-way services trade between Greece and Australia is heavily weighted in Greece's favour. The export of Australian services to Greece was worth around $79 million in 2015-16, while services imports from Greece totaled $917 million. Our services trade consists mainly education-related travel and transport services.
Australia's stock of investment in Greece as at the end of 2015 totaled $240 million. Investment in Australia from Greece was $284 million.
People to people links
Greece and Australia enjoy a close and constructive relationship based on strong community ties. The 2011 Census recorded 99,938 Greek-born people in Australia and 378,267 people who claimed Greek ancestry. The Greek-born population in Australia is largely concentrated in Victoria and New South Wales. Melbourne is Sister City to Thessaloniki.
Australia and Greece share an enduring historical link as a result of the involvement of Australian troops in the defence of Greece during the two World Wars. During World War I, the Greek island of Lemnos was the base for over 50,000 Australian soldiers, sailors and nurses who fought and served in the Gallipoli campaign. In the Battle of Crete (May 1941) during World War II, Australian soldiers fought alongside Greek, New Zealand and British troops to defend the island against German invasion. The battle is commemorated annually.
Greece is Australia's 50th largest inbound market by arrivals. In 2016, there were 9,400 short-term arrivals from Greece, an increase of 23.9 per cent on the previous year.
Greece is Australia's 21st largest short-term destination. In 2016, there were 84,900 short-term resident departures from Australia to Greece, an increase of 4.1 per cent on the previous year.
Greece is a Parliamentary Republic. The President, elected by Parliament every five years, is Head of State. The current President, Ms Katerina Sakellaropoulou, was sworn in on 13 March 2020.
The unicameral parliament consists of 300 members, elected for a maximum of four years. The Prime Minister is Head of Government. The ruling New Democracy party was elected in July 2019. The government is led by Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis.
Greece's foreign policy agenda has traditionally focused on the European Union (EU), the Balkans and its near neighbours (in particular Cyprus and Turkey).
Greece held the rotating Presidency of the EU in 1983, 1988, 1994, 2003 and 2014. Greece is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which it joined in 1952, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
The Greek economy grew on average by over 4 per cent per year between 2003 and 2007, but lost a quarter of GDP in the prolonged recession which followed the global financial crisis in 2009. According to the International Monetary Fund, Greek general government net debt was 179 per cent of GDP by the end of 2015. Unemployment was 23 per cent in late 2016.
To stabilise the economy and address unsustainably high levels of public debt, Greece is undertaking a wide-ranging program of economic reforms and fiscal consolidation supported by the European Commission, the European Central Bank, the European Stability Mechanism and the International Monetary Fund.
Trade and industry profile
The main engine of the Greek economy is the services sector comprising 83.3 per cent of GDP, followed by industry at 9.4 per cent and agriculture at 3.8 per cent (2014). Tourism is important for the Greek economy, contributing around 18 per cent of GDP. Greece's other industries include food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, mining and petroleum.
Greece has little heavy industry, with its once-substantial ship building industry in decline over recent years. Greece nonetheless still has one of the largest registered merchant marine fleets in the world.
Agriculture is of major socio-economic importance to Greece, with 12.9 per cent of the workforce employed in the sector. Almost 20 per cent of the land is arable and almost 9 per cent has permanent crops. The main agricultural products are wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, olives, tomatoes, wine, tobacco, potatoes, beef and dairy products.