6 Australian Delegation, United Nations, to Department of External Affairs
Cablegram United Nations 242 NEW YORK, 2 July 1946
The following is the text of Dr. Evatt's proposals.
Examination of statements by Members of the Atomic Energy
Commission suggest that most nations are agreed in principle that-
A. There should be established some form of International Atomic
Energy Authority, and
B. All Nations should accept such restrictions of their National
rights in the field of Atomic Energy as may be necessary to ensure
that Atomic weapons a-re eliminated and peaceful uses of Atomic
Energy are developed and made available.
Therefore, in first instance attention might usefully be devoted
to consideration of whether we can recommend that such an
authority should be established and if so, what are the basic
principles to be contained in any Treaty including-
A. The principle of a right to share in scientific medical and
industrial benefits to be derived from controlled development of
Atomic energy and
B. The principle of duty to accept obligations in order to ensure
that misuse of Atomic energy shall be effectively prevented.
Accordingly, in order to explore the possibility of making
recommendations covering all the main aspects of the problem as
discussed in the Commission, the following general principles
should be examined.
1. There should be single International instrument embodying-
A. A comprehensive plan for the International control and
development of Atomic energy;
B. Establishment of International Atomic Energy Authority to
administer and carry out plan and to be vested with wide
C. That, as part of plan, there should be undertakings by Member
Nations not to use Atomic energy for purposes of war; and
D. Several parts of the plan shall come into effective operation
under terms and conditions which are just and equitable, having
regard to over-riding purposes of plan.
2. For the purposes of carrying out plan, International authority
should be vested with all necessary rights in relevant raw
materials, processes, plants and products of plants.
3. An effective system should be established for preventing
breaches of the agreed restrictions and controls.
4. International authority shall be required to promote and carry
out plans for development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
5. Scientific information on nuclear processes and their
application to peaceful purposes should be exchanged, care being
taken at each stage not to prejudice effectiveness of agreed
safeguards against misuse. Such exchange of information should
take place by interchange of personnel and through open
6. The general plan should provide that, at times and under
conditions to be fixed by the International authority, manufacture
of Atomic bombs should cease and all existing bombs should be
Following is the substance of a further American memorandum.
Control and development of Atomic energy must be International and
should be entrusted to authority created by Treaty. The Treaty
A. Relations between Authority and Organs of the United Nations,
B. Rights and obligations of signatories and authority, including
relations between authority and any Atomic Energy Control Agencies
of Signatory States,
C. Sequence and timing of transitional period,
D. Time when and conditions under which National and private
possession, manufacture, and use of Atomic weapons shall be
E. Violations which shall constitute International crimes and
sanctions to be employed.
The purposes of the Authority should be-
1. To prevent possession, manufacture or use of atomic weapons for
2. To foster beneficial, non-dangerous uses of atomic energy:
3. To have managerial control or ownership of all atomic energy
activities potentially dangerous to world security:
4. To control, inspect, and license all other Atomic Energy
5. To engage in Atomic Energy Research and development: and
6. To assure that benefits derived from such research and
development shall be available to the peoples of all the Signatory
States so long as each State and its people support the authority
and observe their obligations under the Treaty and Charter.
Subject to application in the manner to be defined in the Charter,
Authority should be granted following powers:
A. To obtain and maintain complete and exclusive control or
ownership of all Uranium, Thorium, and other material which may be
a source of atomic energy wherever present in potentially
dangerous quantities whether in raw material, by-product,
processed, or other form;
B. To conduct continuous investigations and surveys of sources of
atomic energy throughout the world, in aid of the proper exercise
of the foregoing and Authority's other functions and powers;
C. To acquire, construct, own, and exclusively operate all
facilities for production of U-235, Plutonium, and such other
fissionable materials as may be specified by authority, and to
maintain supplies of fissionable materials adequate to fulfil the
purposes of authority;
D. To define and determine, in manner set forth in Charter, . . .
other facilities or activities in field of atomic energy which
would be dangerous unless controlled by the Authority, and to
supervise and have complete managerial control of all such
activities and facilities;
E. To have unhindered access to, and power to control, license,
and to inspect all other facilities which possess, utilise or
produce materials which are a source of atomic energy, and all
other activities which utilise or produce, or are capable of
utilising or producing, atomic energy;
F. To have exclusive right of research in field of atomic
G. To foster and promote non-dangerous use and wide distribution
of atomic energy for beneficial purposes under licences or other
suitable arrangements established by the authority; and
H. Subject to provisions of Treaty and Charter, to have power to
take other necessary action and to issue rules and regulations.
Authority would be organised to function continuously. Provisions
for enforcement should be included in the treaty as follows:
1. Definitions of conduct constituting violations.
2. Consequences of such violations, including the procedures to be
followed in detecting, establishing, remedying or punishing such
violations: Administrative action by the authority.
[AA:A1838 T184, 720/1, i]