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337 Fraser to Commonwealth Government

Cablegram 200 WELLINGTON, 7 November 1944, 3.30 a.m.


My No. 199. [1] Resolutions begin-

I. General International Organisation:

1. Australia and New Zealand desire to play their full part in the
establishment of a general International Organisation for the
purpose of preserving International peace and security and
promoting human welfare.

2. In order that such an Organisation may bring into being an
effective and lasting system of collective security, all the
Members should pledge themselves to co-operate in carrying out, by
force if need be, the decisions of the Organisation for the
preservation of peace.

3. The Charter of the Organisation should make clear to the
peoples of the World the principles on which the action of the
Organisation is to be based.

4. it should be a positive principle of the Organisation, openly
declared and binding upon all Members, that the Territorial
integrity and political independence of Members should be
preserved against change by force or threat of force from another
Power. Provision should be made by the Organisation for
facilitating the orderly change of situations, the continuance of
which might endanger the peace of the World.

5. The Charter of the Organisation should embody the essential
principles of the Atlantic Charter and the Philadelphia
Declaration. [2]

6. The Organisation should be open to all Sovereign States subject
to approval of their submission by the Assembly.

7. The success of such an Organisation will depend upon the
Leadership of the Greater Powers, but it is essential that all
Members should actively participate in the general control and
direction of its affairs. To this end, the powers and functions of
the Assembly should be such as to enable it at any of its meetings
to deal with any matter within the sphere of action of the
Organisation, subject only to the Executive Powers of the Security
Council in regard to the settlement of disputes and the action to
be taken against an aggressor.

8. There should be the maximum employment of the International
Court of Justice for the ascertainment of facts which may be in

9. The Security Council should be limited in numbers, while being
as representative as possible, and for the purpose of preserving
security should be vested with wide powers.

10. The specialised Bodies set up separately for various purposes
of International welfare should be brought within the framework of
the Organisation.

11. Powers responsible for dependent Territories should accept the
principle of Trusteeship, already applicable in the case of
Mandated Territories. In such dependent Territories the purpose of
the Trust is the welfare and advancement of the Native Peoples.

Colonial Powers should undertake to make regular reports to an
International Body analogous to the permanent Mandates Commission,
set up within the framework of the General Organisation. This body
should be empowered to publish reports of its deliberations and to
inspect dependent Territories.

12. For the new Organisation to fulfil its task, the condition
underlying all others is that the Members should fully honour the
obligations which they assume.

II Armistice Arrangements:

1. The Conference has noted the communications which have been
exchanged on the subject of Armistice arrangements in Europe. It
considers that the Dominions and other Nations which have been
actively engaged from the beginning in the war against the Axis
Powers, and have contributed and are contributing materially to
their defeat both on the European Fronts and in other theatres of
war, are entitled to an effective voice in the conclusion of the
European Armistices and the preparations for the Peace Settlements
and participation in their own right in the control of the
Armistice machinery.

2. In the interests of solidarity of the United Nations, both
Australia and New Zealand have felt obliged to acquiesce in their
exclusion from those arrangements in Europe even though
settlements of vital concern have been involved, but they cannot
acquiesce in a similar situation in the Pacific and Far East.

3. Australia and New Zealand are agreed that they should take the
strongest possible action to ensure that their Governments are
consulted in regard to the drafting of Armistices with Japan and
Thailand, that they are represented directly at the conclusion of
the Armistices and that they have the right of participating in
the Armistice control arrangements.

4. As a step in promoting this agreed policy the New Zealand
Representatives proposed and the Conference approved that the
Australian Minister for External Affairs should visit the United
States and the United Kingdom for the purpose of making personal
representations on the matter in the appropriate quarters.

5. Noting Clauses 7 to 11 of the Australian - New Zealand
Agreement [3] and the work already done, the two Governments agree
that they will proceed further with the co-ordination of their
Armistice and Post-hostilities planning.

III. Pacific Questions:

The Conference has considered the procedure for summoning the

International Conference relating to the South and South-west
Pacific, provided for in Clause 34 of the Australian - New Zealand
Agreement. The New Zealand Representatives proposed and the
Conference approved that in the first instance the Australian
Minister for External Affairs should take the earliest opportunity
of discussing in Washington and in London with the appropriate
Authorities the convening of this Conference at an early date.

IV. South Seas Regional Commission:

1. Immediate steps should be taken to establish the South Seas
Regional Commission at the earliest possible date.

2. The general form of the Organisation of the South Seas Regional
Commission should be as follows-
(a) The Commission proper which should consist of Representatives
of the Governments and Administrations in the Region.

(b) A Secretariat.

(c) Research and functional bodies established by the Member
Governments on the advice of the Commission.

3. Provision should be made for associating with the work of the
Commission existing Research and Functional Bodies.

4. There should be held regularly a South Seas Conference for the
discussion of Pacific Islands problems. This Conference might
comprise nominees of Governments represented on the Commission
(these nominees to represent Administrations, Scientific Bodies,
Missionary Bodies and Native Peoples), together with nominees of
International Organisations concerned with welfare problems (e.g.

the I.L.O. and the Food and Agricultural Organisation).

5. The Native Peoples shall, wherever practicable, be enabled to
take part in the work of the Commission and its Agencies.

6. An immediate approach should be made by the Australian and New
Zealand Governments to the United Kingdom in regard to the
establishment of the Commission.

V. Welfare Relations:

1. General Policy: We reaffirm our understanding reached between
the two Governments at Canberra in an exchange of letters dated
the 24th January 1944 [4], namely that the following five points
fairly express our common point of view:-

(i) Because a high level of employment is a fundamental condition
of better standards of living throughout the world, it is agreed
to press strongly for an International Agreement by which-
(a) subscribing Countries will bind themselves to pursue Domestic
policies aimed at full employment; and
(b) existing organisations (such as the I.L.O.) will be used, or a
new International Organisation established, to facilitate the
exchange of information and consultation with each other on
employment policy, and generally to give effect to the
International Agreement.

(ii) During the immediate post-war period the economic situation
will be in a state of flux, and the economic policies of all
Countries will still be unsettled. It is agreed, therefore, to
advocate and support such forms of International economic
collaboration in the transition period as should make it
unnecessary for Countries to adopt policies of aggressive economic

(iii) Every effort should be made to obtain as a permanent feature
of International economic relations, a maximum degree of
collaboration. However, because of the uncertainty of the economic
future it may be impracticable at the outset for many Countries to
accept inflexible obligations of a far-reaching character. In such
circumstances it is desirable, as a preliminary step, that limited
agreements should be sought which would provide at least for
regular consultations between Nations. These may well lead
progressively to more comprehensive agreements.

(iv) It is necessary for Countries which are not fully developed
or highly dependent upon a narrow range of exports to be able
under any agreement-
(a) to use such economic measures, exchange measures, for example,
import selection, exchange control, State Trading and British
Commonwealth preferences, as may, from time to time, prove
necessary to ensure continued stability. The need for these
measures will decrease to the extent that International
collaboration proves successful;

(b) to develop and diversify their industries.

(v) All agreements affecting Australia and New Zealand should take
into special account the dislocations and developments which have
been made necessary by their total war efforts, and also of
accumulated needs resulting from the prolonged diversion from
their peacetime production.

We affirm further that while the commencement of discussions on
various proposals for International economic collaboration are a
matter of immediate concern, the introduction and operation of an
employment agreement should take precedence over the
implementation of all other proposals in the welfare field, and
that discussion and final agreement on these other proposals
should be in relation to the full employment objective.

2. Employment Agreement: We regard an employment Agreement by
which Signatories undertake to pursue internal policies of full
employment and improved living standards as fundamental to the
success of all aspects of International collaboration designed to
promote human welfare. The calling of an Employment Conference
with this objective in view should take precedence over all other
International Economic Discussions.

We propose, therefore, to approach the United States Government
with the proposal that a Conference be called by the United States
Government, in conjunction with the United Kingdom, Australian and
New Zealand Governments.

3. Discussions between Officials: The following matters shall be
examined at the earliest possible date, and arrangements will be
made through the Australian - New Zealand Secretariats in
accordance with Article 35(E) and Article 37 of the Australian -
New Zealand Agreement for immediate discussions by Officials in
the first instance-
(A) International economic collaboration:

(i) Preparation for Employment Conference.

(ii) Commercial Policy proposals.

(iii) Commodity Policy proposals.

(iv) Proposals for control of Cartels.

(v) Proposed Wool Conference.

(vi) Any other United Nations proposal in the welfare field,
including matters arising out of the Relief Administration and the
Food and Agricultural Organisation.

(B) Australian and New Zealand Relations:

(i) Development of Trade.

(ii) Joint Planning of Industrial Development.

(iii) Shipping.

(iv) Co-ordination of policies with regard to exports of primary
products to the United Kingdom.

(v) Application of Internal price stabilisation Policies to
Australian - New Zealand trade.

(vi) Development of post-war trade in the Pacific. [5]

(vii) Exchange of information on Australian and New Zealand post-
war planning, including means of maintaining high levels of
employment, housing programmes, Regional and Town Planning, Re-
establishment proposals. [6]

1 Dispatched 6 November. On file AA:A989, 44/630/5/1/11/17. It
noted that the text of the resolutions of the Wellington
Conference was, at Evatt's request, to have limited circulation
and requested that a copy be handed to the N.Z. High Commissioner
and advised that, with the exception of Resolution II, paragraph 4
and Resolution III, the text had been made available to the U.K.

and Canadian High Commissioners (W.A. Riddell) in Wellington.

2 i.e. the Declaration concerning the Aims and Purposes of the
International Labour Organization unanimously approved at the 26th
I.L.O. Conference at Philadelphia.

3 Document 26.

4 Documents 28 and 29.

5 The paragraphs published here are numbered as in the original,
although the order of (vi) and (vii) was reversed.

6 The official report of the conference, dated 6 November and
embodying these resolutions, (on file AA:A989, 44/630/5/1/11/13)
was approved by Full Cabinet on 10 November. See AA:A2703, vol. 2,
agendum 509A.

[AA:A989, 44/630/5/1/11/17]
Last Updated: 11 September 2013
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