68 Mr A. W. Fadden, Prime Minister, to Mr Winston Churchill, U.K. Prime Minister
Cablegram 590 CANBERRA, 15 September 1941
MOST SECRET PERSONAL FOLLOWING FOR PRIME MINISTER
1. Your telegrams Nos. 620  and 621  of 11th September have
been most carefully considered and discussed with our advisers.
Vital considerations centred around two points: (1) concentration
of Australian Imperial Force in one Corps under its own Commander
who has a direct responsibility to the Commonwealth Government;
(2) necessity for relieving the garrison in view of decline in
their powers to resist.
2. You will recollect that one (1) was laid down in telegram No.
91 of 9th March, 1940  It is a fundamental measure of effective
co-operation with Dominion Forces in the Empire Armies. It is a
principle evolved during the last war not without some opposition.
It is vital to the Australian people to have concentrated control
and direction of its expeditionary forces. We do not consider it
unreasonable to expect that by this date effect would have been
given to this principle. We had occasion to refer to the
disposition of our troops and the importance we attached to their
concentration in telegrams Nos. (?580) 76 of 8th November  and
237 of 18th April.  It was also emphasized personally to the
Commander-in-Chief in the Middle East  and the Chief of the
Imperial General Staff  by the former Prime Minister. 
3. In regard to one (2) my telegram No. 584 of 5th September 
outlines series of requests dating from 20th July  for
relieving the Ninth Division and the following comments are made
on General Auchinleck's telegram. 
(1) Naval risks. These are noted but in the absence of effective
naval opposition in the Mediterranean or any contemplated naval
operations this does not appear to be a sufficiently weighty
(2) Air protection. General Officer Commanding Australian Imperial
Force  advised early August that he had agreed to postpone
relief one month to enable necessary air strength to be provided
and this would also give longer hours of darkness. In view of
increase in air strength and improved situation in Syria, Iraq and
Iran this reason would not appear adequate.
(3) Moonless periods. Reasons noted.
(4) Availability of troops for relief. As it was anticipated
originally that we would carry out offensive operations in the
Western Desert at the same time that we met a German offensive in
Syria for which considerable forces would have had to be allotted
it is not seen how the defence of Syria can be prejudiced in view
of forces available. Frankly the reasons against relief by other
dominion troops are unconvincing.
(5) Undesirability of relief during latter half of October. It
would appear possible to complete relief and install new garrison
by assumed date of proposed offensive even if anticipated date is
realized which it is understood is not generally the case in
large-scale preparations. Reference to a sortie from Tobruk fills
us with grave concern in view of advice we have had that the Ninth
Division will be quite unfitted for such an operation, which will
involve continuous and severe fighting.
(6) Decline in the physical powers of the troops. It is observed
that the Commander-in-Chief states that although health and morale
is very good, power of endurance is noticeably reduced. If the
garrison cannot be relieved, it will be required to stand up to a
total period of eight to nine months' continuous front-line
service under conditions of great hardship, and trying climate. At
the end of this time they are to carry out an offensive operation.
The proposal to reinforce the garrison with one battalion of heavy
tanks appears to acknowledge decreasing power to [sic] garrison
and to discount the difficulties of air and naval protection
previously urged against movement of personnel only.
(7) Relief will prejudice the forthcoming offensive. We do not
concur in the view that further operations are likely to be
compromised in view of the time factor.
4. In view of the responsibilities reposed in the General Officer
Commanding Australian Imperial Force and the advice tendered by
him and the General Officer Commanding the 9th Division  which
is supported by the Government's advisers here, I am bound to
request that withdrawal of the 9th Division and reconcentration of
the Australian Imperial Force be proceeded with. As pointed out in
my telegram No. 584, any reverse suffered by the garrison of
Tobruk in the light of the reports and requests that have been
made over an extensive period would have far-reaching effects. We
do not consider military considerations put forward by the
Commander-in-Chief outweigh case for the relief of the garrison.
5. As intimated in my telegram No. 584 it was not intended to make
any statement until withdrawal had been completed and
reconcentration carried out.