236 Mr R. G. Casey, Minister to the United States, to Department of External Affairs
Cablegram 1228 WASHINGTON, 28 December 1941, 3.15 p.m.
MOST IMMEDIATE SECRET
President  and Churchill have drafted 'a declaration' full text
of which is as follows.
Declaration begins. Joint declaration by United States of America,
China, United Kingdom [of] Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
U.S.S.R., Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia,
Dominican Republic, Salvador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Poland, South
Africa and Yugoslavia.
The Governments signatory hereto having subscribed to a common
programme of purposes and principles embodied in joint declaration
of President U.S.A. and Prime Minister Great Britain dated August
14th, 1941, known as Atlantic Charter , being convinced that
complete victory over their enemies is essential to defend life,
liberty, independence and religious freedom and to preserve human
rights and justice not only in their own lands but everywhere, and
that they [are] now engaged in a common struggle against savage
and brutal forces seeking to subjugate the world, declare:
(1) Each Government pledges itself to employ its full resources
military or economic against those members of the Tripartite Pact
and its adherents, with which such Government is at war. (2) Each
Government pledges itself to co-operate with the other Governments
signatory hereto; and to continue the war against, and not to make
a separate armistice or peace with the common enemies or any of
them. (End of paragraph 2 of the Declaration.)
The foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which
are or which may be rendering material assistance and
contributions towards defeating the members or adherents of the
(The declaration ends.)
The original draft on which the above was based was American and
with slight modifications in the discussion between the President
and Churchill last night, it has reached the above form which is
acceptable both to the United States and Britain subject to the
agreement of the other proposed signatory countries.
The suggested order in which the countries are named is the
proposal of the United States.
The inclusion of China and Russia in the first group of four
countries is designed to accede to the susceptibilities of these
After these first four the order is strictly alphabetical.
I asked if India was to be included and I find that this is under
discussion now. The President has just seen Soviet Ambassador here
 regarding repercussions. President is most anxious that Russia
will accept reference to 'religious freedom' which was not in
Atlantic Charter and omission of which caused considerable
criticism in United States. Countries that it is proposed to ask
to adhere in the first place are those which have declared war
against one or more members of the Axis. Position in particular of
Russia (not having declared war against Japan) is taken care [of]
by the wording in paragraph (2) of the proposed declaration.
I raised point that as declaration was now drafted none of the
signatories could make peace until some signatory such as Haiti or
Panama had agreed. This is admitted but Americans say in effect
Central and South American republics will quite certainly follow
any lead of United States in such important matters.
United States do not want to have Free French Movement admitted as
a signatory because they are not a 'Government' and because such
action would be a blow to Vichy and United States want to bolster
up prestige and morale of Vichy Government as much and as long as
President and Churchill are most anxious that declaration be
signed on December 31st or January 1st, that is before Churchill
returns to Britain. They both ask that Commonwealth Government
should give declaration their very early consideration and that,
unless you have points of principle to criticize or suggest, you
might overlook minor deficiencies in the draft, by reason of time
element and the large number of potential signatories involved.
They would be grateful of earliest reply that you can find it
convenient to make.
[AA:A981, USA 206]