327 Chifley to Addison, Fraser and Weightman
INTER-GOVERNMENTAL DIRECTIVE TO THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF IN
I am forwarding herewith copies of a draft directive to the Joint
Chiefs of Staff in Australia, prepared on the basis of the tasks
allotted to them by the participating Governments, as set out in
the telegrams exchanged between the Governments in connection with
the organisation of the British Commonwealth Forces for the
occupation of Japan.
The draft directive has been compiled by the Joint Chiefs of Staff
in Australia who have recommended that it should be issued to them
by the Australian Government acting on behalf of the other British
Commonwealth Governments participating in the British Commonwealth
Occupation Force. 
The draft is satisfactory to the Australian Government, and
expresses the position correctly in regard to the relation of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Australian Government machinery. I
would observe, however, that, during the Prime Ministers'
Conference in London last April, the Australian Government
outlined its views as to the basis on which coordination of Empire
Defence will be based, in so far as Australia and its Higher
Defence Machinery are concerned.  At the same time, the
Australian Government also referred to the relation of the
Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia to the views
which it had expressed. In forwarding the draft directive, I would
like to make it clear that, while its terms are appropriate to the
present circumstances, the Australian Government does not
necessarily accept the present set-up as the best and most
suitable method of controlling the British Commonwealth Occupation
Force. Furthermore, the Australian Government does not consider
the Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia to be a
suitable model for the future development of machinery for Empire
Co-operation, and, when it has formulated into a detailed scheme
the views expressed by it in London, it reserves the right to
review, from its own angle and in the light of its conclusions,
the set-up for the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia. 
J. B. CHIFLEY
INTER-GOVERNMENTAL DIRECTIVE TO THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF IN
1. This directive is issued to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in
Australia, on behalf of, and with the approval of, His Majesty's
Governments in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and
India, hereinafter referred to as the 'British Commonwealth
Purpose of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia
2. The Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia, hereinafter referred to
as 'J.C.O.S.A.', has been set up on behalf of the British
Commonwealth Governments concerned, to plan for and to control the
British Commonwealth participation in the occupation of Japan as
represented by the British Commonwealth Occupation Force,
hereinafter referred to as 'B.C.O.F.'.
3. The formation of B.C.O.F., and the setting up of J.C.O.S.A.,
are regarded by the British Commonwealth Governments concerned as
constituting further developments in British Commonwealth co-
Composition of J.C. O. S.A.
4. J.C.O.S.A. is to consist of the Australian Chiefs of Staff and
representatives of the Chiefs of Staff in the United Kingdom and
New Zealand, and of the Commander-in-Chief, India, in his capacity
as Commander-in-Chief of the three Indian Services.
Relationship of J.C.O.S.A. to the Australian Defence Machinery
5. J.C.O.S.A. is to look to the Australian Government machinery
(a) The obtaining of inter-Governmental guidance on matters of
(b) Executive action to implement J.C.O.S.A. policy and decisions;
(c) Administrative machinery required for J.C.O.S.A. and B.C.O.F.
matters. This machinery may be augmented from the staffs of the
over-seas members of J.C.O.S.A.
6. For general administrative purposes and for the submission of
matters requiring an inter-governmental exchange of views,
J.C.O.S.A. is to be viewed as an extension of the Australian
Chiefs of Staff Committee. This relationship, together with that
existing between J.C.O.S.A. and other Australian Defence
Machinery, is shown diagrammatically at Annexure I. 
7. Owing to the distribution of duties between the Australian
Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Australian Defence Committee,
whereby the primary function of the former is to deal with
operational matters and strategical appreciations and the latter
is the statutory advisory body on defence policy and on matters of
policy or principle and important questions having a joint-Service
or inter-Departmental defence aspect , the overseas members of
J.C.O.S.A. are to sit as members of the Australian Defence
Committee (Extended) when matters concerning overseas contingents
of B.C.O.F. or concerning the Force as a whole are under
8. On the initiative of the Minister for Defence or of members of
J.C.O.S.A., consultations may be arranged between them on matters
dealt with by J.C.O.S.A. or by the Extended Defence Committee.
Consultations may also be arranged between the Minister and the
individual members of J.C.O.S.A. All decisions resulting from
these consultations will be communicated as stated in paragraph 25
RESPONSIBILITIES OF J.C.O.S.A.
Planning for the Occupation of Japan
9. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible for drawing up plans for the
participation by British Commonwealth Forces in the occupation of
10. J.C.O.S.A. is to ensure, subject to the provisions of
paragraph 24 [below], that the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., is
provided with all facilities to enable B.C.O.F:-
(a) To represent worthily the British Commonwealth in the
occupation of Japan;
(b) To maintain and to enhance British Commonwealth prestige and
influence in the eyes of the Japanese and of our Allies; and
(c) To illustrate to and to impress upon the Japanese people as
far as may be possible the democratic way and purpose in life.
Control of B.C.O.F.
11. J.C.O.S.A. is vested with responsibility for the control and
administration of B.C.O.F., subject to:-
(a) The supreme control of the British Commonwealth Governments
(b) The responsibility of the British Commonwealth Governments
concerned for the interior economy and administration of their own
(c) Conformity with the procedure laid down by the British
Commonwealth Governments concerned for the authorisation of
commitments relating to the maintenance of their own contingent,
or accepted in respect of B.C.O.F. as a whole;
(d) The reservations regarding operational control stated in
paragraph 12 below; and
(e) The reservations regarding financial control stated in
paragraph 13 below.
12. Operational control of B.C.O.F. is vested in the Supreme
Commander for the Allied Powers, in accordance with the
'Memorandum for Record' signed at Tokyo on 18th December, 1945
, as modified by the provisos set out by the United States
Government in its note dated 22nd January, 1946, to the Australian
Legation at Washington  J.C.O.S.A. however, remains responsible
to the British Commonwealth Governments concerned for watching
that their interests from the operational aspect are fully
safeguarded. The Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., has the right to
communicate through J.C.O.S.A. to the Australian Government, as
agent of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, in
respect of any matters of governmental significance affecting the
policy and operations of B.C.O.F. as a whole.
13. The co-ordination and supervision of financial control of
B.C.O.F. as a whole is vested in the Australian Government, as
agent of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned.
J.C.O.S.A.'s financial responsibility in respect of B.C.O.F. is
limited to tendering Service advice to the appropriate Australian
Provision of advice on Service matters to the Supreme Commander
for the Allied Powers
14. When required by the Commander-in-Chief B.C.O.F., in pursuance
of his responsibility for furnishing to the Supreme Commander for
the Allied Powers advice on land and/or air Service matters
outside B.C.O.F.'s immediate sphere but concerning the British
Commonwealth countries represented in B.C.O.F. as a whole,
J.C.O.S.A. is to arrange for the provision of coordinated British
Directives to Commanders
15. J.C.O.S.A. is to draft the necessary directives to the
Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., to the Air Officer Commanding the
Air Group B.C.O.F., and to the Commanders of the Service
components of each national contingent. These drafts are to be
submitted through the Australian Government, as agent of the
British Commonwealth Governments concerned, for inter-governmental
approval and issue by the appropriate authorities.
Order of Battle, War Establishments and War Equipment Tables 16.
J.C.O.S.A. is to submit the order of battle of B.C.O.F., and war
establishments and war equipment tables for integrated
headquarters and units of B.C.O.F., for approval by the
governments who would provide the personnel and equipment, or by
the appropriate authority in cases where powers have been
delegated. Proposals for amendment of the order of battle or of
war establishments and war equipment tables of integrated
headquarters and units (other than the variations in nationality
of appointments which are within the competence of the Commander-
in-Chief, B.C.O.F.) are to be submitted in the same way.
17. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible for coordinating publicity and
arranging for the issue of British Commonwealth publicity material
in connection with its own organisation and B.C.O.F. as a whole.
J.C.O.S.A. is to refer all publicity matters concerning inter-
governmental policy, and inter-service or inter-governmental
differences on publicity, to the Australian Government for action
on a governmental level with the other British Commonwealth
18. J.C.O.S.A. is to ensure that any instructions on publicity or
any publicity material issued either by, or on behalf of
J.C.O.S.A., conform to the national requirements of the British
Commonwealth Governments concerned. In this respect, when public
statements or publicity material concern one national contingent,
they will be issued through the channels laid down by the
government concerned. To ensure that Australian interests are
fully protected J.C.O.S.A. is to arrange that the Australian
Department of Defence is consulted before material affecting
J.C.O.S.A. or B.C.O.F. as a whole is released in Australia.
19. To assist J.C.O.S.A. in dealing with publicity, and with the
coordination between J.C.O.S.A. and B.C.O.F. of publicity matters,
a Joint Publicity Co-ordinating Officer will be appointed. The
Joint Publicity Co-ordinating Officer may be either an officer of
the Australian Department of Defence or an officer attached to
J.C.O.S.A. from any Service of any of the four countries from
which B.C.O.F. is drawn. The officer appointed will be responsible
Policy of Integration
20. J.C.O.S.A. is to foster within its own organisation and within
B.C.O.F. the policy of maximum integration on an inter-Service and
CHANNELS OF RESPONSIBILITY
Responsibilities of Individual Overseas Members of J.C.O.S.A.
21. The United Kingdom, New Zealand and India members of
J.C.O.S.A. are representatives of their respective Chiefs of Staff
or Commander-in-Chief, with whom they are authorised to
communicate direct at their discretion. Their tasks are:-
(a) To represent the views of their respective Chiefs of Staff or
Commander-in-Chief with special reference to the control and
administration of B.C.O.F;
(b) To maintain touch with the various branches of the Australian
Service Departments, and provide overseas representatives in those
departments so as to assist in dealing with B.C.O.F. matters; and
(c) To ensure that representatives are provided to sit on the
various committees that meet under the direction of the Australian
Defence Committee or J.C.O.S.A., whenever these committees are
dealing with B.C.O.F. matters of common interest.
Collective Responsibility of Members of J.C.0.S.A.
22. The members of J.C.O.S.A. are to be collectively responsible
to the Australian Government in the latter's capacity as agent of
the British Commonwealth Governments concerned.
Responsibilities of Members of J.C.O.S.A. when sitting as Members
of the Australian Defence Committee (Extended)
23. The individual and collective responsibilities of the members
of J.C.O.S.A. will be the same whether they are sitting as members
of J.C.O.S.A. or as members of the Australian Defence Committee
Reference of Policy Matters to Higher Authority
24. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible that all matters of policy, whether
administrative or otherwise, upon which it is not authorised to
pronounce without prior discussion on a governmental level, are
referred to the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, or to
the appropriate departments within those Governments, before any
instruction is issued to the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., or to
any other authorities with whom J.C.O.S.A. deals.
25. Inter-governmental guidance on matters referred to in
paragraph 24 may be obtained through two channels: matters
primarily of Service significance may be referred by J.C.O.S.A.
jointly to the respective Chiefs of Staff and/or the Commander-in-
Chief, India, for clearance as may be appropriate; matters having
political significance are to be submitted by J.C.O.S.A. through
the Secretary, Australian Department of Defence, to the Minister
for Defence for a decision on behalf of the British Commonwealth
Governments concerned, who will be consulted as may be necessary.
The resulting decisions from the Minister for Defence, which will
be on an inter-governmental basis, will be communicated through
the Australian Department of Defence to J.C.O.S.A. and to any
26. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible that all matters of policy upon
which its members are not authorised to pronounce without prior
agreement on the Chiefs of Staff level are referred to the Chiefs
of Staff concerned and/or the Commander-in-Chief, India. These
matters will be submitted by J.C.O.S.A., or alternatively by
overseas members of J.C.O.S.A., direct to the respective Chiefs of
Staff and/or the Commander-in-Chief, India, as may be appropriate.
27. Policy matters affecting one Service, which require agreement
on a Service level, unless otherwise decided by J.C.O.S.A., are to
be submitted by overseas members of J.C.O.S.A. to their respective
Service chiefs, as provided in paragraph 21 above.
Relation with Other Authorities concerned with B.C.O.F.
28. Subject to paragraph 24 above, J.C.O.S.A. is authorised to
deal direct with the following authorities:-
(a) The Chiefs of Staff, Australia, New Zealand and the United
Kingdom, and the Commander-in-Chief, India.
(b) The Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F.
(c) South East Asia Command.
(d) The Commander-in-Chief, British Pacific Fleet.
(e) Any British Commonwealth Service Mission established, or to be
established, in Japan.
Channels of Responsibility for controlling B.C.O.F.
29. The responsibility for the control and administration of
B.C.O.F. vested in J.C.O.S.A. is to be exercised by the issue by
J.C.O.S.A. of instructions on joint policy, through the Australian
Chiefs of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F.
30. The executive instructions required to implement joint policy,
as laid down by J.C.O.S.A., are to be issued by the appropriate
Australian Service concerned direct to Headquarters, B.C.O.F. In
respect of Service matters affecting B.C.O.F. these headquarters
are empowered to deal with the corresponding Service headquarters
in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and India, with the Service
headquarters under the South East Asia Command and with Commander-
in-Chief, British Pacific Fleet.
J.C.O.S.A. PLANNING AND SECRETARIAL MACHINERY
J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff
31. J.C.O.S.A. is to maintain an integrated joint planning staff
headed by Directors of Joint Planning. This staff is to be known
as the J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff. It is to consist of officers
drawn from the Services of the countries represented on J.C.O.S.A.
and is to be assisted by joint subcommittees appointed as
necessary by the Directors of Joint Planning.
32. The J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff will work in parallel with the
Australian machinery and members thereof will be incorporated in
those Australian Committees with whose work they are concerned.
They are authorised to communicate on a planning level with
Headquarters, B.C.O.F., and with the joint planning staffs and
principal administrative officers committees in the various
countries represented on J.C.O.S.A.
33. In matters which affect one Service only, the J.C.O.S.A.
Planning Staff may deal direct with the appropriate branch or
directorate of the Service Department concerned. In applying this
to Australian Service branches or directorates, it should be
ensured, where ministerial or departmental authority is concerned,
that the normal procedure is observed to enable these authorities
to discharge their responsibilities, particularly where financial
commitments are involved.
34. J.C.O.S.A. is to be served by a secretariat consisting of
officers of, or attached to, the Australian Department of Defence.
These officers, some of whom may be drawn from the staff of the
overseas representatives, are to be directly responsible to
J.C.O.S.A., through its chairman, in respect of their duties as
secretaries, including the initiation of appropriate action
arising out of the decisions or recommendations of J.C.O.S.A. They
are to be responsible to the Secretary, Australian Department of
Defence, for duties which fall within the administrative sphere of
that Department, and, if they are civil officers, will be under
his control for normal civil staff administration.
35. A joint secretariat of Service personnel will be provided to
meet the needs of the J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff.
Minister for Defence,
Commonwealth Government of Australia,
for and on behalf of His Majesty's
Governments in the United Kingdom, Australia,
New Zealand and India.