The Australia Group

Fighting the spread of chemical and biological weapons. Strengthening global security.

List of Plant Pathogens for Export Control

28 February 2020

Core List

Bacteria

  1. Xanthomonas albilineans
  2. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri A) [Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri]
  3. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Pseudomonas campestris pv. oryzae)
  4. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Corynebacterium michiganensis subsp. sepedonicum or Corynebacterium sepedonicum)
  5. Ralstonia solanacearum, race 3, biovar 2

Fungi

  1. Colletotrichum kahawae (Colletotrichum coffeanum var. virulans)
  2. Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)
  3. Microcyclus ulei (syn. Dothidella ulei)
  4. Puccinia graminis ssp. graminis var. graminis / Puccinia graminis ssp. graminis var. stakmanii (Puccinia graminis [syn. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici])
  5. Puccinia striiformis (syn. Puccinia glumarum)
  6. Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)
  7. Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari)
  8. Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae
  9. Synchytrium endobioticum
  10. Tilletia indica
  11. Thecaphora solani

Viruses

  1. Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus)
  2. Potato spindle tuber viroid

Genetic Elements and Genetically-modified Organisms:

Any genetically-modified organism1 which contains, or genetic element2 that codes for:

  1. any gene or genes specific to any listed virus; or
  2. any gene or genes specific to any listed bacterium or fungus, and which
    1. in itself or through its transcribed or translated products represents a significant hazard to human, animal or plant health, or
    2. could endow or enhance pathogenicity3.

Technical note

  1. Genetically-modified organisms include organisms in which the nucleic acid sequences have been created or altered by deliberate molecular manipulation.
  2. Genetic elements include, inter alia: chromosomes, genomes, plasmids, transposons, vectors, and inactivated organisms containing recoverable nucleic acid fragments, whether genetically modified or unmodified, or chemically synthesized in whole or in part.  For the purposes of the genetic elements control, nucleic acids from an inactivated organism, virus, or sample are considered 'recoverable' if the inactivation and preparation of the material is intended or known to facilitate isolation, purification, amplification, detection, or identification of nucleic acids.
  3. 'Endow or enhance pathogenicity' is defined as when the insertion or integration of the nucleic acid sequence or sequences is/are likely to enable or increase a recipient organism's ability to be used to deliberately cause disease or death.  This might include alterations to, inter alia: virulence, transmissibility, stability, route of infection, host range, reproducibility, ability to evade or suppress host immunity, resistance to countermeasures, or detectability.

Items for Inclusion in Awareness-raising Guidelines

Bacteria

  1. Xylella fastidiosa

Fungi

  1. Phoma tracheiphila (Deuterophoma tracheiphila)
  2. Moniliophthora roreri (Monilia roreri)

Viruses

  1. Banana bunchy top virus

Genetic Elements and Genetically-modified Organisms:

  1. Genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of any of the microorganisms in the Awareness-raising Guidelines.
  2. Genetically-modified organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of any of the microorganisms in the Awareness-raising Guidelines.

Technical note: Genetically-modified organisms includes organisms in which the genetic material (nucleic acid sequences) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination, and encompasses those produced artificially in whole or in part.

Genetic elements include inter alia chromosomes, genomes, plasmids, transposons, and vectors whether genetically modified or unmodified, or chemically synthesized in whole or in part.

Nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of any of the micro-organisms in the list means any sequence specific to the relevant listed micro-organism: