327 Chifley to Addison, Fraser and Weightman

Letter CANBERRA, 18 December 1946

INTER-GOVERNMENTAL DIRECTIVE TO THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF IN AUSTRALIA

I am forwarding herewith copies of a draft directive to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia, prepared on the basis of the tasks allotted to them by the participating Governments, as set out in the telegrams exchanged between the Governments in connection with the organisation of the British Commonwealth Forces for the occupation of Japan.

The draft directive has been compiled by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia who have recommended that it should be issued to them by the Australian Government acting on behalf of the other British Commonwealth Governments participating in the British Commonwealth Occupation Force. [1]

The draft is satisfactory to the Australian Government, and expresses the position correctly in regard to the relation of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Australian Government machinery. I would observe, however, that, during the Prime Ministers' Conference in London last April, the Australian Government outlined its views as to the basis on which coordination of Empire Defence will be based, in so far as Australia and its Higher Defence Machinery are concerned. [2] At the same time, the Australian Government also referred to the relation of the Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia to the views which it had expressed. In forwarding the draft directive, I would like to make it clear that, while its terms are appropriate to the present circumstances, the Australian Government does not necessarily accept the present set-up as the best and most suitable method of controlling the British Commonwealth Occupation Force. Furthermore, the Australian Government does not consider the Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia to be a suitable model for the future development of machinery for Empire Co-operation, and, when it has formulated into a detailed scheme the views expressed by it in London, it reserves the right to review, from its own angle and in the light of its conclusions, the set-up for the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia. [3]

J. B. CHIFLEY Prime Minister

Enclosure

INTER-GOVERNMENTAL DIRECTIVE TO THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF IN AUSTRALIA

INTRODUCTION

1. This directive is issued to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia, on behalf of, and with the approval of, His Majesty's Governments in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and India, hereinafter referred to as the 'British Commonwealth Governments concerned'.

Purpose of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia 2. The Joint Chiefs of Staff in Australia, hereinafter referred to as 'J.C.O.S.A.', has been set up on behalf of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, to plan for and to control the British Commonwealth participation in the occupation of Japan as represented by the British Commonwealth Occupation Force, hereinafter referred to as 'B.C.O.F.'.

3. The formation of B.C.O.F., and the setting up of J.C.O.S.A., are regarded by the British Commonwealth Governments concerned as constituting further developments in British Commonwealth co- operation.

Composition of J.C. O. S.A.

4. J.C.O.S.A. is to consist of the Australian Chiefs of Staff and representatives of the Chiefs of Staff in the United Kingdom and New Zealand, and of the Commander-in-Chief, India, in his capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the three Indian Services.

Relationship of J.C.O.S.A. to the Australian Defence Machinery 5. J.C.O.S.A. is to look to the Australian Government machinery for:-

(a) The obtaining of inter-Governmental guidance on matters of political significance;

(b) Executive action to implement J.C.O.S.A. policy and decisions;

(c) Administrative machinery required for J.C.O.S.A. and B.C.O.F.

matters. This machinery may be augmented from the staffs of the over-seas members of J.C.O.S.A.

6. For general administrative purposes and for the submission of matters requiring an inter-governmental exchange of views, J.C.O.S.A. is to be viewed as an extension of the Australian Chiefs of Staff Committee. This relationship, together with that existing between J.C.O.S.A. and other Australian Defence Machinery, is shown diagrammatically at Annexure I. [4]

7. Owing to the distribution of duties between the Australian Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Australian Defence Committee, whereby the primary function of the former is to deal with operational matters and strategical appreciations and the latter is the statutory advisory body on defence policy and on matters of policy or principle and important questions having a joint-Service or inter-Departmental defence aspect [5], the overseas members of J.C.O.S.A. are to sit as members of the Australian Defence Committee (Extended) when matters concerning overseas contingents of B.C.O.F. or concerning the Force as a whole are under consideration.

8. On the initiative of the Minister for Defence or of members of J.C.O.S.A., consultations may be arranged between them on matters dealt with by J.C.O.S.A. or by the Extended Defence Committee.

Consultations may also be arranged between the Minister and the individual members of J.C.O.S.A. All decisions resulting from these consultations will be communicated as stated in paragraph 25 [below].

RESPONSIBILITIES OF J.C.O.S.A.

Planning for the Occupation of Japan 9. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible for drawing up plans for the participation by British Commonwealth Forces in the occupation of Japan.

10. J.C.O.S.A. is to ensure, subject to the provisions of paragraph 24 [below], that the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., is provided with all facilities to enable B.C.O.F:-

(a) To represent worthily the British Commonwealth in the occupation of Japan;

(b) To maintain and to enhance British Commonwealth prestige and influence in the eyes of the Japanese and of our Allies; and (c) To illustrate to and to impress upon the Japanese people as far as may be possible the democratic way and purpose in life.

Control of B.C.O.F.

11. J.C.O.S.A. is vested with responsibility for the control and administration of B.C.O.F., subject to:-

(a) The supreme control of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned;

(b) The responsibility of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned for the interior economy and administration of their own contingents;

(c) Conformity with the procedure laid down by the British Commonwealth Governments concerned for the authorisation of commitments relating to the maintenance of their own contingent, or accepted in respect of B.C.O.F. as a whole;

(d) The reservations regarding operational control stated in paragraph 12 below; and (e) The reservations regarding financial control stated in paragraph 13 below.

12. Operational control of B.C.O.F. is vested in the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, in accordance with the 'Memorandum for Record' signed at Tokyo on 18th December, 1945 [6], as modified by the provisos set out by the United States Government in its note dated 22nd January, 1946, to the Australian Legation at Washington [7] J.C.O.S.A. however, remains responsible to the British Commonwealth Governments concerned for watching that their interests from the operational aspect are fully safeguarded. The Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., has the right to communicate through J.C.O.S.A. to the Australian Government, as agent of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, in respect of any matters of governmental significance affecting the policy and operations of B.C.O.F. as a whole.

13. The co-ordination and supervision of financial control of B.C.O.F. as a whole is vested in the Australian Government, as agent of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned.

J.C.O.S.A.'s financial responsibility in respect of B.C.O.F. is limited to tendering Service advice to the appropriate Australian authorities.

Provision of advice on Service matters to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers 14. When required by the Commander-in-Chief B.C.O.F., in pursuance of his responsibility for furnishing to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers advice on land and/or air Service matters outside B.C.O.F.'s immediate sphere but concerning the British Commonwealth countries represented in B.C.O.F. as a whole, J.C.O.S.A. is to arrange for the provision of coordinated British Commonwealth views.

Directives to Commanders 15. J.C.O.S.A. is to draft the necessary directives to the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., to the Air Officer Commanding the Air Group B.C.O.F., and to the Commanders of the Service components of each national contingent. These drafts are to be submitted through the Australian Government, as agent of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, for inter-governmental approval and issue by the appropriate authorities.

Order of Battle, War Establishments and War Equipment Tables 16.

J.C.O.S.A. is to submit the order of battle of B.C.O.F., and war establishments and war equipment tables for integrated headquarters and units of B.C.O.F., for approval by the governments who would provide the personnel and equipment, or by the appropriate authority in cases where powers have been delegated. Proposals for amendment of the order of battle or of war establishments and war equipment tables of integrated headquarters and units (other than the variations in nationality of appointments which are within the competence of the Commander- in-Chief, B.C.O.F.) are to be submitted in the same way.

Publicity 17. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible for coordinating publicity and arranging for the issue of British Commonwealth publicity material in connection with its own organisation and B.C.O.F. as a whole.

J.C.O.S.A. is to refer all publicity matters concerning inter- governmental policy, and inter-service or inter-governmental differences on publicity, to the Australian Government for action on a governmental level with the other British Commonwealth Governments concerned.

18. J.C.O.S.A. is to ensure that any instructions on publicity or any publicity material issued either by, or on behalf of J.C.O.S.A., conform to the national requirements of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned. In this respect, when public statements or publicity material concern one national contingent, they will be issued through the channels laid down by the government concerned. To ensure that Australian interests are fully protected J.C.O.S.A. is to arrange that the Australian Department of Defence is consulted before material affecting J.C.O.S.A. or B.C.O.F. as a whole is released in Australia.

19. To assist J.C.O.S.A. in dealing with publicity, and with the coordination between J.C.O.S.A. and B.C.O.F. of publicity matters, a Joint Publicity Co-ordinating Officer will be appointed. The Joint Publicity Co-ordinating Officer may be either an officer of the Australian Department of Defence or an officer attached to J.C.O.S.A. from any Service of any of the four countries from which B.C.O.F. is drawn. The officer appointed will be responsible to J.C.O.S.A.

Policy of Integration 20. J.C.O.S.A. is to foster within its own organisation and within B.C.O.F. the policy of maximum integration on an inter-Service and inter-Dominion basis.

CHANNELS OF RESPONSIBILITY

Responsibilities of Individual Overseas Members of J.C.O.S.A.

21. The United Kingdom, New Zealand and India members of J.C.O.S.A. are representatives of their respective Chiefs of Staff or Commander-in-Chief, with whom they are authorised to communicate direct at their discretion. Their tasks are:-

(a) To represent the views of their respective Chiefs of Staff or Commander-in-Chief with special reference to the control and administration of B.C.O.F;

(b) To maintain touch with the various branches of the Australian Service Departments, and provide overseas representatives in those departments so as to assist in dealing with B.C.O.F. matters; and (c) To ensure that representatives are provided to sit on the various committees that meet under the direction of the Australian Defence Committee or J.C.O.S.A., whenever these committees are dealing with B.C.O.F. matters of common interest.

Collective Responsibility of Members of J.C.0.S.A.

22. The members of J.C.O.S.A. are to be collectively responsible to the Australian Government in the latter's capacity as agent of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned.

Responsibilities of Members of J.C.O.S.A. when sitting as Members of the Australian Defence Committee (Extended) 23. The individual and collective responsibilities of the members of J.C.O.S.A. will be the same whether they are sitting as members of J.C.O.S.A. or as members of the Australian Defence Committee (Extended).

Reference of Policy Matters to Higher Authority 24. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible that all matters of policy, whether administrative or otherwise, upon which it is not authorised to pronounce without prior discussion on a governmental level, are referred to the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, or to the appropriate departments within those Governments, before any instruction is issued to the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F., or to any other authorities with whom J.C.O.S.A. deals.

25. Inter-governmental guidance on matters referred to in paragraph 24 may be obtained through two channels: matters primarily of Service significance may be referred by J.C.O.S.A.

jointly to the respective Chiefs of Staff and/or the Commander-in- Chief, India, for clearance as may be appropriate; matters having political significance are to be submitted by J.C.O.S.A. through the Secretary, Australian Department of Defence, to the Minister for Defence for a decision on behalf of the British Commonwealth Governments concerned, who will be consulted as may be necessary.

The resulting decisions from the Minister for Defence, which will be on an inter-governmental basis, will be communicated through the Australian Department of Defence to J.C.O.S.A. and to any department concerned.

26. J.C.O.S.A. is responsible that all matters of policy upon which its members are not authorised to pronounce without prior agreement on the Chiefs of Staff level are referred to the Chiefs of Staff concerned and/or the Commander-in-Chief, India. These matters will be submitted by J.C.O.S.A., or alternatively by overseas members of J.C.O.S.A., direct to the respective Chiefs of Staff and/or the Commander-in-Chief, India, as may be appropriate.

27. Policy matters affecting one Service, which require agreement on a Service level, unless otherwise decided by J.C.O.S.A., are to be submitted by overseas members of J.C.O.S.A. to their respective Service chiefs, as provided in paragraph 21 above.

Relation with Other Authorities concerned with B.C.O.F.

28. Subject to paragraph 24 above, J.C.O.S.A. is authorised to deal direct with the following authorities:-

(a) The Chiefs of Staff, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and the Commander-in-Chief, India.

(b) The Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F.

(c) South East Asia Command.

(d) The Commander-in-Chief, British Pacific Fleet.

(e) Any British Commonwealth Service Mission established, or to be established, in Japan.

Channels of Responsibility for controlling B.C.O.F.

29. The responsibility for the control and administration of B.C.O.F. vested in J.C.O.S.A. is to be exercised by the issue by J.C.O.S.A. of instructions on joint policy, through the Australian Chiefs of Staff to the Commander-in-Chief, B.C.O.F.

30. The executive instructions required to implement joint policy, as laid down by J.C.O.S.A., are to be issued by the appropriate Australian Service concerned direct to Headquarters, B.C.O.F. In respect of Service matters affecting B.C.O.F. these headquarters are empowered to deal with the corresponding Service headquarters in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and India, with the Service headquarters under the South East Asia Command and with Commander- in-Chief, British Pacific Fleet.

J.C.O.S.A. PLANNING AND SECRETARIAL MACHINERY

J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff 31. J.C.O.S.A. is to maintain an integrated joint planning staff headed by Directors of Joint Planning. This staff is to be known as the J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff. It is to consist of officers drawn from the Services of the countries represented on J.C.O.S.A.

and is to be assisted by joint subcommittees appointed as necessary by the Directors of Joint Planning.

32. The J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff will work in parallel with the Australian machinery and members thereof will be incorporated in those Australian Committees with whose work they are concerned.

They are authorised to communicate on a planning level with Headquarters, B.C.O.F., and with the joint planning staffs and principal administrative officers committees in the various countries represented on J.C.O.S.A.

33. In matters which affect one Service only, the J.C.O.S.A.

Planning Staff may deal direct with the appropriate branch or directorate of the Service Department concerned. In applying this to Australian Service branches or directorates, it should be ensured, where ministerial or departmental authority is concerned, that the normal procedure is observed to enable these authorities to discharge their responsibilities, particularly where financial commitments are involved.

Secretariat 34. J.C.O.S.A. is to be served by a secretariat consisting of officers of, or attached to, the Australian Department of Defence.

These officers, some of whom may be drawn from the staff of the overseas representatives, are to be directly responsible to J.C.O.S.A., through its chairman, in respect of their duties as secretaries, including the initiation of appropriate action arising out of the decisions or recommendations of J.C.O.S.A. They are to be responsible to the Secretary, Australian Department of Defence, for duties which fall within the administrative sphere of that Department, and, if they are civil officers, will be under his control for normal civil staff administration.

35. A joint secretariat of Service personnel will be provided to meet the needs of the J.C.O.S.A. Planning Staff.

............

Minister for Defence, Commonwealth Government of Australia, for and on behalf of His Majesty's Governments in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and India.

/ /1946.

1 The Extended Defence Committee had recommended issuing the Directive 'for purposes of concise record and for guidance in setting up of a similar organisation in the future' (Defence Committee Minute 100/1946). A first draft prepared by the planning staff was approved by the Committee on 1 May for submission to the Australian Govt and thence to the other governments concerned; it was subsequently revised and approved in its penultimate form by the Committee in July. This draft was retained for consideration in the Defence Dept, in view of 'the relationship of J.C.O.S.A. to the Australian Higher Defence organisation and the Australian Government' (Defence Committee Minute 372/1946). A substantial alteration to paragraph 7 (see note 5) was approved by Shedden on 4 December; on 11 December Dedman sent the final draft to Chifley for approval and dispatch to other Commonwealth Govts.

2 See Volume IX, Document 200.

3 The draft was accepted by the U.K., Indian and N.Z. Govts in letters dated, respectively, 21 and 26 February and in March 1947.

On 5 August 1947 Chifley, as Acting Minister for Defence, formally signed the Directive.

4 Not published.

5 The penultimate version, following the words 'defence policy' read: 'and all joint-Service questions of an administrative nature'.

6 Volume VIII, Document 463.

7 See Volume IX, Document 49.

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