10 Churchill to Curtin
Cablegram 532  LONDON, 24 July 1942, 10.12 p.m.
Your JOHCU No. 37. 
I send you a minute which has been prepared by the Chiefs of
It had always been our intention to build up a considerable force
in the Levant-Caspian area this summer in order to provide against
the possibility of a break on the Russian southern flank and a
German advance through the Levant or Persia.
2. The extension of the war to the Far East compelled us-
(a) To divert to Malaya and India three British Divisions (the
18th, 5th and 2nd) from the United Kingdom which would otherwise
have been available for the Middle East.
(b) To return from the Middle East to Australia two out of the
three Australian Divisions.
(c) To send the 70th British Division from the Middle East to
(d) To despatch to Burma and Malaya certain British-Indian
formations which were to have gone to Basra.
(e) To retain in India certain other British-Indian formations
which were similarly destined.
3. As a result the Levant-Caspian front is now almost bare and we
entirely depend for the security of these vital regions on the
Russian front holding. We estimate that even if the Russians were
to break, the Germans could not invade Iraq and Persia in great
strength until the spring of 1943; but if there were little or
nothing there to stop them they could push through with small
forces at a much earlier date.
4. Much depends also upon the result of the battle now raging in
Egypt. If we win it may be possible to divert some of the forces
now fighting in the Western Desert to secure the northern front;
but these will be only a fraction of what is required.
5. We ourselves are doing everything we can to reinforce the
Middle East. The 44th Division is just about to arrive; the 51st
Division arrives next month; and the 56th Division is being
prepared for despatch in August. This will probably be followed by
a further armoured division from this country. In addition we are
prepared to move one or even two divisions from India which is now
6. Even however if General Auchinleck wins his battle and all the
above reinforcements reach their destination there will not be a
man too many in the Middle East as a whole. It is our considered
opinion that to withdraw the 9th Australian Division at the
present time or indeed during this year (1942) would endanger the
safety of the vital Abadan oilfields. Without them we cannot hope
to maintain our position in the Middle East and the Indian Ocean.
Some 60 per cent of Australia's oil requirements are supplied from
this source and owing to heavy loss of tankers could not be
brought from elsewhere without the greatest difficulty if at all.
7. Apart from the necessity on strategical grounds for retaining
the well-seasoned 9th Australian Division in the Middle East it
must be remembered that its transportation to Australia, coupled
with the transportation of a division to replace it, would involve
an unjustifiable and dangerous shipping commitment. Minute ends.
1. I note the points you make about wastage and the difficulties
you may find in despatching reinforcements from Australia. I very
much hope that you will be able to overcome these difficulties and
keep your fine Division now gaining fresh distinction up to
strength. But should this prove impossible, I suggest that it
would be necessary to fall back upon the expedient of making good
wastage by breaking up ancillary units.