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Australian Government - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Advancing the interests of Australia and Australians internationally

Australian Government - Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade

Advancing the interests of Australia and Australians internationally

Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office

Annual Report 1999-2000

Glossary of Abbreviations, Acronyms And Definitions

AA

Administrative Arrangement. An arrangement made under each of Australias bilateral safeguards agreements setting out detailed procedures for the implementation of the agreement.

AAEC

Australian Atomic Energy Commissionpredecessor of ANSTO.

ABACC

Brazilian-Argentine Safeguards Agency.

Additional Protocol

Published as IAEA document INFCIRC/540, the Additional Protocol is designed to complement a States Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system.

AGSO

Australian Geological Survey Organisation.

ANSTO

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

AONM

Australian Obligated Nuclear Material: nuclear material which is subject to obligations pursuant to one of Australias bilateral safeguards agreements. In practice it relates to Australian uranium and nuclear material derived from it (e.g. uranium hexafluoride, low enriched uranium, depleted uranium, plutonium).

AOPu

Australian Obligated Plutonium (i.e. plutonium which is AONM).

ARPANSA

Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency.

ASAP

Australian Safeguards Assistance Program.

Australia Group

A group of States that adhere to common guidelines for controls on exports with the aim of preventing the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

BAPETEN

Nuclear Energy Control Board (Indonesia).

BATAN

National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia).

Biocontainment

A room or suite of rooms designed to handle biological agents according to their risk groups defined in the WHO biosafety manual. Work undertaken in a laboratory at a specific level should follow procedures prescribed for that level of containment.

BWC

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacterialogical (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction.

BWR

Boiling Water Reactor: an LWR in which the moderator/coolant is used directly to produce steam for electricity generation.

C/S

Containment and Surveillance. Containment refers to structural features of a facility or equipment which enable access to nuclear material to be monitored and detectede.g. by applying seals to a door. Surveillance refers to monitoring of nuclear material, e.g. by cameras.

CD

Conference on Disarmament.

Challenge inspection

Under the CWC, an inspection that can be initiated by a State Party to resolve suspicions about a particular site.

Classical safeguards

The system of safeguards based on INFCIRC/153.

Complementary Access

The right of the IAEA pursuant the Additional Protocol to access a location to carry out verification activities.

Comprehensive safeguards agreement

Agreement between a State and the IAEA for the application of safeguards to all of the States current and future nuclear activities (equivalent to full scope safeguards)based on INFCIRC/153.

Conversion

Processing of natural uranium into a gaseous compound, uranium hexafluoride, for use as the feedstock for uranium enrichment.

CPPNM

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.

CTBT

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

CTBTO

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty OrganisationVienna based international organisation established to give effect to the CTBT.

CWC

Chemical Weapons Convention.

Depleted uranium

Uranium having a U-235 content less than that found in nature (i.e. as a result of uranium enrichment).

DFAT

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

DirectUse Material

Nuclear material defined for safeguards purposes as being useable for nuclear explosives without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U‑233.

Discrete organic chemical (DOC)

Any chemical belonging to the class of chemical compounds consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulphides and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by structural formula, if known, and by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number, if assigned. Long chain polymers are not included in this definition.

DOE

United States Department of Energy.

DPRK

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea.

Enrichment

A physical or chemical process for increasing the proportion of a particular isotope. Uranium enrichment involves increasing the proportion of U-235 from its level in natural uranium, 0.711%: for LEU fuel the proportion of U-235 (the enrichment level) is typically increased to between 3% and 5%.

ESARDA

European Safeguards Research and Development Association.

Euratom

The Atomic Energy Agency of the European Union. Its Safeguards Office is responsible for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in civil nuclear facilities in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK.

Facility

(for CWC purposes) A plant, plant site or production/processing unit. [NB. for legal purposes, the term Facility, as it appears in provisions of the Chemical Weapons (Prohibition) Act, has the same meaning as plant site].

Facility Attachment

(for safeguards purposes) A document agreed between the IAEA and the relevant Member State which specifies the nuclear materials accountancy system for a specific facility, and defines the format and scope of inspection activities.

Fast neutron

A neutron in the fast energy range (>0.1 MeV).

Fast neutron reactor

A reactor that operates mainly with neutrons in the fast energy range. Because a moderator is not used, a fuel with a high energy density is required, usually plutonium (more specifically, MOX with a high proportion, e.g. 20-30%, of plutonium) or HEU. Through transmutation of U-238, a fast breeder reactor is designed to produce more plutonium than it consumes. However fast neutron reactors can also be operated as net plutonium consumers.

Fissile

Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by thermal neutrons (e.g. U-233, U-235, Pu-239).

Fission

The splitting of an atomic nucleus into roughly equal parts, often by a neutron. In a fission reaction, a neutron collides with fissile nuclide (e.g. U-235) and splits, releasing energy and new neutrons. Many of these neutrons may go on to collide with other fissile nuclei, setting up a nuclear chain reaction.

Fissionable

Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by fast neutrons (e.g. Pu-240, Pu-242).

FMCT

Proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty.

Fuel Assembly (fuel element or fuel bundle)

A grouping of fuel rods, pins, plates, etc., held together by spacer grids and other structural components, which is maintained intact during fuel transfer and irradiation operations in a reactor.

Full Scope Safeguards

The application of IAEA safeguards to all of a States present and future nuclear activities.

Graphite

A form of carbon, used as a moderator in certain types of nuclear reactor. Graphite is a very efficient moderator, enabling uranium to be used in a fission reactor without enrichment.

GW

Gigawatt (Giga = billion, 109).

GWe / GWt

Gigawatts of electrical / thermal power.

Heavy water (D2O)

Water containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium (hydrogen 2) which consists of a proton and a neutron. D2O occurs naturally as about one part in 6000 of ordinary water. D2O is a very efficient moderator, enabling uranium to be used in a fission reactor without enrichment.

HEU

High enriched uranium. Uranium enriched to 20% or more in U‑235. Weapons grade HEU has been enriched to over 90% U‑235.

HIFAR

High Flux Australian Reactor: the 10 MWt research reactor located at ANSTOs Lucas Heights Research Laboratories.

Hot Cell

A shielded work area, with thick lead glass windows and remote manipulation devices, in which radioactive materials can be safely handled and inspected.

HTGCR

High temperature gas-cooled reactor.

Hydroacoustic

Term referring to underwater propagation of pressure waves (sounds).

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency.

ICR

Inventory Change Report. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.

IDC

International Data Centre. Data gathered by monitoring stations of the CTBT IMS network are compiled, analysed and archived by the Vienna based IDC. IDC products giving the results of analyses are made available to CTBT signatories.

IMS

International Monitoring SystemA network of 337 monitoring stations and analytical laboratories established pursuant to the CTBT which, together with the IDC, gather and analyse data with the aim of detecting any explosive nuclear testing.

IndirectUse Material

Nuclear material that cannot be used for a nuclear explosive without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium, low-enriched uranium (LEU), and thorium.

INFCIRC

Information Circular. A series of documents published by the IAEA setting out safeguards, physical protection and export control arrangements.

INFCIRC/66 Rev.2

The model safeguards agreement used by the IAEA since 1965. Essentially this agreement is facilityspecific. In the case of non-nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT, it has been replaced by INFCIRC/153.

INFCIRC/153 (Corrected)

The model agreement used by the IAEA as a basis for negotiating safeguards agreements with non-nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT.

INFCIRC/225 Rev.4.(Corr)

IAEA document entitled The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities. Its recommendations reflect a consensus of views among IAEA Member States on desirable requirements for physical protection measures on nuclear material, that is, measures taken for its physical security.

Infrasound

Sound in the frequency range of 0.02 to 4 Hertz. One category of CTBT IMS stations will monitor sound at these frequencies with the aim of detecting explosive events such as a nuclear test explosion at a range up to 5000 km.

INMM

Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.

Integrated safeguards

The combination of classical and strengthened safeguards measures to give optimal effectiveness and cost-efficiency.

ISD

International Security Division, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Isotopes

Nuclides with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, e.g. U-235 (92 protons and 143 neutrons) and U-238 (92 protons and 146 neutrons). The number of neutrons in an atomic nucleus, while not significantly altering its chemistry, does alter its properties in nuclear reactions.

LEU

Low Enriched Uranium; uranium enriched to less than 20% in U-235. Commonly LEU for use as LWR fuel is enriched to between 3% and 5% U-235.

LHRL

Lucas Heights Research Laboratories.

Listed Agents

A specific list of microorganisms and toxins proposed in the current draft of the verification protocol to the BWC.

LWR

Light Water Reactor. The most common type of power reactor, using ordinary (light) water as the moderator and coolant. Because light water is not an efficient moderator the uranium fuel must be slightly enriched (LEU).

MBA

Material Balance Area. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.

MBR

Material Balance Report. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.

Microbiological production

Production of food, medicine and other chemicals by cultivation of microorganisms or tissue cultures.

Microorganism

Dead or alive bacteria, viruses, fungi and singlecell organisms.

Moata

ANSTOs university training reactor (Moata means firestick in an Aboriginal language). Now defuelled and awaiting decommissioning.

Moderator

A material used to slow fast neutrons to thermal speeds where they can readily be absorbed by U-235 or plutonium nuclei and initiate a fission reaction. The most commonly used moderator materials are light water, heavy water or graphite.

MOX

Mixed oxide reactor fuel, consisting of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxidesfor fresh LWR fuel the plutonium content is typically around 5%.

MHTGCR

Modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor.

MUF

Material Unaccounted For. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.

MW

Megawatt (Mega = million, 106).

MWe / MWt

Megawatts of electrical / thermal power.

Natural uranium

In nature uranium consists predominantly of the isotope U-238 (approx. 99.3%), with the fissile isotope U-235 comprising only 0.711%.

NCG

National Consultative Group, established by the Minister for Foreign Affairs in 1998 to provide advice in the context of negotiations on strengthening BWC Verification Protocol.

NDA

Non-destructive analysis or assay.

NDC

National Data Centre, pursuant to the CTBT.

NMAC

Nuclear Materials Accountancy and Control.

NMCC

Nuclear Material Control Centre (Japan).

NNWS

Non-nuclear-weapon State(s).

NPT

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

NRC

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

NSG

Nuclear Suppliers Group: a group comprised of nuclear supplier States that adhere to guidelines set out in the IAEA document INFCIRC/254 for controls on exports of nuclear materials, equipment and technology.

Nuclide

Nuclear species characterised by the number of protons (atomic number) and the number of neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number of the nuclide.

NWS

Nuclear-weapon State(s): those States recognised by the NPT as having nuclear weapons when the Treaty was concluded, that is, US, UK, Russia, France and China.

OCPF

Other Chemical Production Facility: a facility that produces discrete organic chemicals in quantities exceeding thresholds defined in the CWC.

OPCW

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

OSI

On-site Inspectiona short notice challenge type inspection provided for in the CTBT as a means for investigation concerns about serious non-compliance the testing prohibition.

Pebble bed reactor

HTGCR using fuel in the form of uranium/graphite spheres.

PIL

Physical Inventory Listing. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.

Plant

For CWC purposes, is defined as a relatively selfcontained area, structure or building containing one or more units for the production, processing or consumption of a chemical, along with associated infrastructure.

Plant site

For CWC purposes, is defined as the local integration of one or more plants, with any intermediate administrative levels, which are under one operational control, and includes common infrastructure.

Production

For CWC purposes, is defined as the formation of a chemical through chemical reaction. Production of chemicals specified by the CWC is declarable, even if produced as intermediates and irrespective of whether or not they are isolated.

Programmatic

Refers to an agreed delineated fuelcycle program (facilities and activities).

PWR

Pressurised water reactor: an LWR in which the moderator/coolant heats a secondary cooling circuit that produces steam for electricity generation.

R&D

Research and Development.

Reprocessing

Processing of spent fuel to separate uranium and plutonium from highly radioactive fission products.

ROK

Republic of Korea.

S/RD

Shipper/Receiver Difference. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy.

SAGSI

Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation: an advisory group to the Director General of the IAEA.

SNL

Sandia National Laboratories, USA.

SPNFZ

South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty.

SSAC

State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material: the national safeguards system required of each State under its safeguards agreement with the IAEA.

Thermal neutron

A neutron in the thermal energy range (<0.1 MeV). The thermal energy range is optimal for causing fission reactions through neutron capture.

Thermal reactor

A reactor in which neutrons are slowed to thermal speeds by use of a moderator.

TCNC

Technical Center for Nuclear Control (ROK).

Toxin

Compound originating from microorganisms animals or plants irrespective of the method of production whether natural or modified that can death, disease or ill health to humans, animals or plants.

TW

Terawatt (tera = trillion, 1012).

TWh

Terawatt hours.

U-233

Isotope 233 of uranium, produced through neutron irradiation of thorium-232.

U-235

Isotope 235 of uranium (occurs as 0.711% of natural uranium), comprising 92 protons and 143 neutrons.

U-238

Isotope 238 of uranium (occurs as about 99.3% of natural uranium), comprising 92 protons and 146 neutrons.

UF6

Uranium hexafluoride, a gaseous compound of uranium and fluorine used as the feedstock for most enrichment processes.

UOC

Uranium Ore Concentrates (i.e. yellowcake).

WMD

Weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological).

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