Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office: Annual Report 2012-13


Additional Protocol
An agreement designed to complement a state's Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA in order to strengthen the effectiveness and improve the efficiency of the safeguards system. The model text of the Additional Protocol is set out in IAEA document INFCIRC/540.
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation
Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency
Australian Safeguards Support Program
Australian Obligated Nuclear Material (AONM)
Australian Obligated Nuclear Material. Australian uranium and nuclear material derived therefrom, which is subject to obligations pursuant to Australia's bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements.
Challenge Inspection
(For CWC purposes) An inspection, requested by a CWC State Party, of any facility or location in the territory or in any other place under the jurisdiction or control of another State Party.
Complementary Access
The right of the IAEA, pursuant to the Additional Protocol, for access to a site or location to carry out verification activities.
Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement
Agreement between a state and the IAEA for the application of safeguards to all of the state's current and future nuclear activities (equivalent to 'full scope' safeguards) based on IAEA document INFCIRC/153.
Concise Note
Supplementary explanatory notes on formal reports from a national safeguards authority to the IAEA.
Purification of uranium ore concentrates or recycled nuclear material and conversion to a chemical form suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication.
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. The Vienna-based international organisation established at entry into force of the CTBT to ensure the implementation of its provisions.
Australian Customs & Border Protection Service
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. Also known as the Chemical Weapons Convention.
CWC Scheduled Chemicals
Chemicals listed in the three Schedules to the Chemical Weapons Convention. Some are chemical warfare agents and others are dual-use chemicals (that can be used in industry or in the manufacture of chemical warfare agents).
Department of Defence
Australian Department of Defence
Depleted Uranium
Uranium with a 235U content less than that found in nature (e.g. as a result of uranium enrichment processes).
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Direct-Use Material
Nuclear material defined for safeguards purposes as being usable for nuclear explosives without transmutation or further enrichment, e.g. plutonium, HEU and 233U.
Discrete Organic Chemical
Any chemical belonging to the class of chemical compounds consisting of all compounds of carbon, except for its oxides, sulphides and metal carbonates, identifiable by chemical name, by structural formula, if known, and by Chemical Abstracts Service registry number, if assigned. Long chain polymers are not included in this definition.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Defence Science and Technology Organisation
A physical or chemical process for increasing the proportion of a particular isotope. Uranium enrichment involves increasing the proportion of 235U from its level in natural uranium, 0.711%. For LEU fuel the proportion of 235U (the enrichment level) is typically increased to between 3% and 5%.
Atomic Energy Agency of the European Union. Euratom's safeguards office, called the Directorate General of Transport and Energy H (DG), is responsible for the application of safeguards to all nuclear material in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden; and to all nuclear material in civil facilities in France and the United Kingdom.
(For CWC purposes) A plant, plant site or production/processing unit.
(For safeguards purposes) A reactor, critical facility, conversion plant, fabrication plant, reprocessing plant, isotope separation plant, separate storage location or any location where safeguards significant amounts of nuclear material are customarily used.
Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by neutrons of any energy, including 'thermal' neutrons (e.g. 233U, 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu).
Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT)
A proposed international treaty to prohibit production of fissile material for nuclear weapons.
The splitting of an atomic nucleus into roughly equal parts, often by a neutron. In a fission reaction, a neutron collides with a fissile nuclide (e.g. 235U) that then splits, releasing energy and further neutrons. Some of these neutrons may go on to collide with other fissile nuclei, setting up a nuclear chain reaction.
Referring to a nuclide capable of undergoing fission by 'fast' neutrons (e.g. 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu).
Full Scope Safeguards
The application of IAEA safeguards to all of a state's present and future nuclear activities. Now more commonly referred to as comprehensive safeguards.
Geoscience Australia
Gigawatt (Giga = billion, 109).
Gigawatts of electrical power.
Gigawatts of thermal power.
Heavy Water
Water enriched in the 'heavy' hydrogen isotope deuterium (2H) which consists of a proton and a neutron. D2O occurs naturally as about one part in 6000 of ordinary water. D2O is a very efficient moderator, enabling the use of natural uranium in a nuclear reactor.
High Flux Australian Reactor. The 10 MWt research reactor located at ANSTO, Lucas Heights.
High enriched uranium
Uranium enriched to 20% or more in 235U. Weapons-grade HEU is enriched to over 90% 235U.
Term referring to underwater propagation of pressure waves (sounds). One category of CTBT IMS station monitoring changes in water pressure generated by sound waves in the water.
International Atomic Energy Agency
Indirect-Use Material
Nuclear material that cannot be used for a nuclear explosive without transmutation or further enrichment (e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium, LEU and thorium).
IAEA Information Circular. A series of documents published by the IAEA setting out, inter alia, safeguards, physical protection and export control arrangements.
INFCIRC/153 (Corrected)
The model agreement used by the IAEA as a basis for comprehensive safeguards agreements with non-nuclear-weapon states party to the NPT.
INFCIRC/225 Rev.5 (Corrected)
IAEA document entitled 'Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Nuclear Facilities'. Its recommendations reflect a consensus of views among IAEA member states on desirable requirements for physical protection measures on nuclear material and facilities, that is, measures taken for their physical security.
The model text of the Additional Protocol.
INFCIRC/66 Rev.2
The model safeguards agreement used by the IAEA since 1965. Essentially this agreement is facility-specific. For NNWS party to the NPT it has been replaced by INFCIRC/153.
Sound in the frequency range of about 0.02 to 4 Hertz. One category of CTBT IMS stations will monitor sound at these frequencies with the aim of detecting explosive events such as a nuclear test explosion at a range up to 5000 km.
Integrated safeguards
The optimum combination of all safeguards measures under comprehensive safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency.
International Data Centre
Data gathered by monitoring stations in the CTBT IMS network are compiled, analysed to identified events and archived by the Vienna-based IDC. IDC products giving the data about events are made available to CTBT signatories.
International Monitoring System
A network of monitoring stations and analytical laboratories established pursuant to the CTBT which, together with the IDC, gather and analyse data with the aim of detecting any nuclear explosion.
Inventory Change Report
A formal report from a national safeguards authority to the IAEA on changes to nuclear materials inventories in a given period.
Nuclides with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, e.g. 235U (92 protons and 143 neutrons) and 238U (92 protons and 146 neutrons). The number of neutrons in an atomic nucleus, while not significantly altering its chemistry, does alter its properties in nuclear reactions. As the number of protons is the same, isotopes are different forms of the same chemical element.
Light water
H2O. Ordinary water.
Light water reactor
A power reactor which is both moderated and cooled by ordinary (light) water. In this type of reactor, the uranium fuel must be slightly enriched (that is, LEU).
Low Enriched Uranium
Low Enriched Uranium. Uranium enriched to less than 20% 235U. Commonly, LEU used as fuel in light water reactors is enriched to between 3% and 5% 235U.
Material Balance Area
A delineation for nuclear accounting purposes as required under comprehensive safeguards agreements. It is a defined and delineated area in or outside of a facility such that: (a) the quantity of nuclear material in each transfer into or out of the material balance area can be determined; and (b) The physical inventory of nuclear material in the material balance area” can be determined; in order that the nuclear material balance can be established for IAEA safeguards purposes.
Material Balance Report
A formal report from a national safeguards authority to the IAEA comparing consolidated inventory changes in a given period with the verified inventories at the start and end of that period.
Mixed oxide fuel
Mixed oxide reactor fuel, consisting of a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides. The plutonium content of fresh MOX fuel for a LWR is typically around 5–7%.
Small training reactor previously located at Lucas Heights.
A material used to slow fast neutrons to thermal speeds where they can readily be absorbed by 235U or plutonium nuclei and initiate a fission reaction. The most commonly used moderator materials are light water, heavy water or graphite.
Material Unaccounted For. A term used in nuclear materials accountancy to mean the difference between operator records and the verified physical inventory. A certain level of MUF is expected due to measurement processes. MUF does not usually indicate “missing” material – because it is a difference due to measurement, MUF can have either a negative or a positive value.
Megawatts of electrical power.
Megawatts of thermal power.
Natural uranium
In nature uranium consists predominantly of the isotope 238U (approx. 99.3%), with the fissile isotope 235U comprising only 0.711%.
Non-nuclear-weapon state(s) (NNWS)
States not recognised by the NPT as having nuclear weapons at 1 January 1967 when the Treaty was negotiated.
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Nuclear material
Any source material or special fissionable material as defined in Article XX of the IAEA Statute (in practice, this means uranium, thorium and plutonium).
Nuclear-weapon state(s)
States recognised by the NPT as having nuclear weapons at 1 January 1967 when the Treaty was negotiated, namely the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China.
Nuclear species characterised by the number of protons (atomic number) and the number of neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number of the nuclide.
Old Chemical Weapons
Defined under the Chemical Weapons Convention as:
  1. a) chemical weapons produced before 1925; or
  2. b) chemical weapons produced between 1925 and 1946 that have deteriorated to such extent that they can no longer be used as chemical weapons.
On-Site Inspection
On-Site Inspection. A short notice challenge-type inspection provided for in the CTBT as a means for investigation concerns about non-compliance with the prohibition on nuclear explosions.
Open Pool Australian Light-Water reactor. The 20 MWt research reactor located at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, reached full power on 3 November 2006 and was officially opened on 20 April 2007.
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
Other Chemical Production Facility
Defined under the Chemical Weapons Convention as all plant sites that:
  1. a) produced by synthesis during the previous calendar year more than 200 tonnes of unscheduled discrete organic chemicals; or
  2. b) comprise one or more plants which produced by synthesis during the previous calendar year more than 30 tonnes of an unscheduled discrete organic chemical containing the elements phosphorus, sulphur or fluorine.
Physical Inventory Listing
A formal report from a national safeguards authority to the IAEA on nuclear materials inventories at a given time (generally the end of a Material Balance Report period).
Preparatory Commission. In this report the term is used for the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.
(For CWC purposes) The formation of a chemical through chemical reaction. Production of chemicals specified by the CWC is declarable, even if produced as intermediates and irrespective of whether or not they are isolated.
Provisional Technical Secretariat for the CTBTO Preparatory Commission
An isotope of plutonium with atomic mass 239 (94 protons and 145 neutrons). The fissile isotope of plutonium most suitable for nuclear weapons.
Research and Development.
An isotope with an unstable nucleus that disintegrates and emits energy in the process. Radionuclides may occur naturally, but they can also be artificially produced, and are often called radioisotopes. One category of CTBT IMS stations will detect radionuclide particles in the air. Other IMS stations are equipped with radionuclide noble gas technology to detect the abundance of the noble gas xenon in the air.
Processing of spent nuclear fuel to separate uranium and plutonium from highly radioactive fission products.
Safeguards Inspector
For domestic purposes, person declared under section 57 of the Safeguards Act to undertake inspections to ensure compliance with provisions of the Act and to assist IAEA Inspectors in the conduct of Agency inspections and complementary access in Australia.
Schedule 2A/2A*
These are toxic Part A Schedule 2 chemicals (2A: Amiton and PFIB, 2A*: BZ) listed under the CWC
Referring to the movements of the ground that can be generated by earthquakes, explosions etc.. The seismic element of the CTBT monitoring system is a network of 50 primary stations and 120 auxiliary stations. Analysis of seismic waves can be used to distinguish between earthquakes and explosive events.
Small Quantities Protocol
A protocol to a state's Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, for states with small quantities of nuclear material and no nuclear facilities. The protocol holds in abeyance most of the provisions of the state's Safeguards Agreement.
Source Material
Uranium containing the mixture of isotopes occurring in nature; uranium depleted In the isotope uranium-235; thorium; or, any of the foregoing in the form of metal, alloy, chemical compound, or concentrates.
Special Fissionable Material
Plutonium-239; uranium-233; uranium enriched in the isotopes 235 or 233; any material containing one or more of the foregoing. The term special fissionable material does not include source material.
Standing Advisory Group on Safeguard Implementation
An international group of experts appointed by, and advising, the IAEA Director General on safeguards implementation matters.
The only naturally occurring isotope of thorium, having an atomic mass of 232 (90 protons and 142 neutrons).
An isotope of uranium containing 233 nucleons, usually produced through neutron irradiation of 232Th.
An isotope of uranium containing 235 nucleons (92 protons and 143 neutrons) which occurs as 0.711% of natural uranium.
An isotope of uranium containing 238 nucleons (92 protons and 146 neutrons) which occurs as about 99.3% of natural uranium.
United Nations Security Council Resolution
Uranium ore concentrate
A commercial product of a uranium mill usually containing a high proportion (greater than 90%) of uranium oxide.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Refers to nuclear, chemical, biological and occasionally radiological weapons.